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高考英语备考指导:说明文阅读理解备考策略

发布时间:2018-02-02 03:42  作者:极品课件站  点击数:

  一、考查特点

  高考对说明文的考查多为科普说明文,它是阅读理解重要内容,也是高考考查难点。科普说明文着重揭示自然界潜在奥秘、生物生存背景和产品工艺原理,多解释性、定义性、说明性长句,甚至可能会出现多种从句叠现的现象,因此阅读科普说明文时同学们一定要保持冷静,始终以平静的心态阅读原文,解答试题。同时应认真分析长句句子结构和逻辑关

 
 
 
     
 
 

 
系,这样才能对其做出准确理解。

  二、考查题型及应对策略

  科普说明文常设置下列题型:

  1.动植物保护自身方式判断题

  介绍动植物生长特点时常出现受环境影响动植物保护自身方式判断题,这种试题常以To defend…, …uses…或How does…protect itself against…?为设问方式,解题时应认真阅读原文对动植物自我保护方式内容的介绍,看其是以进化、逃避还是进攻保护自身。

  2.标题判断题

  科普说明文多出现标题判断题,考查考生对全文的理解,它常以What would be the best title for this passage?为设问方式,解题时应特别注意因科普说明文常介绍动植物是如何保护自身的,因此多以How do/does…defend themselves(itself)为标题。

  3.生词词义判断题

  科普说明文往往揭示自然奥秘、动植物生存特点及产品工艺原理,易出现一些学术性较强的生词,因此常出现生词词义判断题,这种试题常以What does the underlined word mean?或What is the meaning of the underlined word?为设问方式考查对生词词义的判断。解题时一定要认真阅读原文,分析原文对自然奥秘、动植物生存特点、产品工艺原理是如何解释、如何定义的,在此基础上抽象概括出生词词义。

  4.代词指代判断题

  科技说明文在对自然奥秘、动植物生存特点及产品工艺原理进行解释时,易出现动作变换多、人称转变频的现象,因此常出现代词指代判断题,这些试题常以it, they, them等表物的代词为命题题点,要求考生根据上下文语境逻辑推断其指代对象。解题时应认真分析动作转换背景,区分动作不同执行者,从而准确判断代词的正确指代。

  5.科学方法图示判断题

  科普说明文常出现科学方法图示判断题,这种试题或以生物依赖关系为命题题点,要求考生判断正确的生物依赖关系;或以工艺流程为命题题点,要求考生判断正确的流程顺序,或以生产方法为命题题点,要求考生判断正确的生产方法;或以机械配制为命题题点,要求考生判断正确的机械配制。解题时一定要认真阅读分析原文对生物依赖关系、发明创造诞生过程和工艺流程过程的介绍,并且边读边画简易草图,以提高理解准确率。分析备选项时应对照原文介绍情况,找出各图不同之处,以便最终做出正确判断。

  6.新产品使用方法判断题

  科学的发明创造都应推广使用才能转化为生产力,因此科普说明文阅读材料常出现新产品使用方法判断题,这种试题常以What is the correct way to use the new invention?或How can you use the new product?或What should we do to use the new product?为设问方式考查对新产品使用方法的判断。解题时应认真阅读原文介绍新产品使用方法的注意点,从而找到新产品正确的使用方法。

  真题演练

  真题演练

  Animals can move from place to place, but plants cannot. When an animal is under attack, it can run away or fight back.. Plants certainly cannot run away, and they lack teeth and claws. But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means.

  Some plants have their own ways to keep animals away. For example, the leaves of the holly plant have sharp spines (刺) that discourage grass-eating animals. Holly leaves on lower branches have more spines than leaves on upper branches. This is because the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach..

  Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat. Some grasses may contain a sandy material; eating such grasses wears down the animal's teeth.

  Many plants also have chemical defenses. Some plants produce chemicals that taste bitter or cause an unpleasant reaction. Some plants may fight against an attack by increasing the production of these chemicals. When a caterpillar (毛虫) bites a tobacco leaf, the leaf produces a chemical messenger. This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine. The higher levels of nicotine discourage the caterpillar.

  Many plants depend on both physical and chemical defenses. A certain plant in China, for instance, has prickly (多刺的) leaves, and each prickle contains poisonous venom (毒液) A single experience with this kind of plant will teach an animal to stay away from it in the future. (NEMT2005江苏D篇)

  69. To defend themselves, oak trees use________.

  A. chemical means B. physical means

  C. bitter chemicals D. sandy materials

  70. How does tobacco protect itself against an attack from a caterpillar?

  A. Its leaves fight against the attack by physical means.

  B. Its roots send a messenger to discourage the caterpillar.

  C. Its roots increase the production of nicotine when it is attacked.

  D. Its leaves produce poisonous sand to drive the caterpillar away.

  71. What would be the best title for this passage?

  A. Plants and Animals B. How Plants Defend Themselves

  C. Attacks and Defenses D. How Animals Eat Plant Leaves

  答案与解析:

  69. B 植物保护自身方式判断题。由原文第三节首句Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat.体现答案。

  70. C 植物保护自身方式判断题。由原文第四节This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine可以推出答案。

  71. B 标题判断题。认真阅读分析原文不难发现,原文第一节末句But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means.为主题句,全文围绕它展开说明,由此不难找到答案。

  江苏省如皋市第一中学 郝昌明

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